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This was not adopted, but his division into Mississippian, for the 's "Story of a piece of coal" focuses on coal formation, but includes a section on the carboniferous limestone.It lists (but does not discuss) the intervening millstone grit.writes of fine-grained greenish sandstones deposited in freshwater in which land plant fossils are well preserved."Among the most attractive of these" tree-fern once called Cyelopteris (Round-leaved Fern), re named Palasopteris Hibernicus (Primitive Irish Fern). It was the "monarch of the primeval forests" whose "graceful fronds bent over the clear waters of a lake".) 13,800,000,000 (13.8 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to present estimates of "big bang" - "Stephen Hawkings and others...estimate between 18 and 11 billion with 13.8 being the closest estimation".By carboniferous [carbon bearing] soils, Richard Kirwan in 1799 meant the "various sorts of earth or stone among or under which coal is usually found".William Daniel Conybeare and William Phillips (1822, page vii) proposed to consider all rocks in an ascending order with a group including "not only the great coal-deposit itself, but those of the limestone and sandstone also on which it reposes" as the "medial" [middle] order.

The about 365 million years ago during the Famennian.

starting about 2.500,000,000 years ago, sedimentary rocks affected by higher amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere, appear red, as though rusted. Fossils include earliest fish, but of types very different from modern ones. signs of the "tentative presence" of plants on land.

Mesoproterozoic from 1,600,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 years ago. Particular importance attaches to occurred around 1,300,000,000 years ago during the late Mesoproterzoic era, after the earth's transition to a more highly oxygenated atmosphere with an ozone screen. Deposits that made Westmorland Green slate formed around 450 million years ago. About 50 million years later, the material was altered by heat and pressure (metamorphosed) to slate, during mountain-building. After many more millions of years, they resembled patches of moss a few centimeters high.

Galena can contain minor amounts of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, silver, and zinc See and stalagmites.

Encountering impermeable strata (such as toadstone) it forms underground lakes in the limestone which overflow to the surface as natural springs (a resurgence).

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